A 10-YEAR REVIEW OF ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA AT THE ORALPATHOLOGY LABORATORY, UNIVERSITY OF GHANA DENTAL SCHOOL
Keywords:Oral squamous cell carcinoma, Histopathological reports, Age, Sex, Site distribution, Degree of differentiation
Background: Oral Squamous cell carcinoma accounts for about 90% of all tumors in the head and neck region. It is a cause of cancer mortality among Africans. There is limited information and documentation on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) in Africa. Only a few studies in Ghana have evaluated the clinicopathological features of OSCC. This study reported the prevalence, age, sex distribution, common presentation sites, and degree of differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients presenting to the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory over 10 years.
Method: This was a retrospective analysis of cases of OSCC diagnosed at the Oral Pathology Diagnostic Laboratory, Ghana Dental School, Ghana, between January 2011 and December 2020.
Results: A total of 3526 cases were diagnosed in the study period; 167 cases were oral squamous cell carcinoma. The prevalence of OSCC was 4.74%. The gender distribution was 2.86% among males, and 1.87% among females. The mean age of patients was 60.08 ± 16.207; the median age was 61. Peak incidence was in the 51-60- and 61-70-year groups in both sexes. Male to female ratio was 1.5:1. The commonest site of the presentation was the tongue (26.7%), followed by the buccal mucosa (19.2%), alveolus (11.0%), palate (11.0%), the mandible (8.7%), floor of the mouth (6.4%), lower lip (5.8%), Maxilla (4.1%), retromolar pad (2.3%) and upper lip (0.6%). Most of the lesions were well differentiated (58.10%).
Conclusion: The present data highlight the reduced ratio of males to females presenting with OSCC, the increasing number of OSCC cases in the young and middle-aged adult population, the tongue as the most common site, and most lesions being well-differentiated lesions. This study will help improve public health education and documentation of lesions for future studies.